Hi. I’m Tom. I’ve been shooting video for more than 35 years. And I don’t have a problem with vertical video. In fact, I’m starting to have a problem with people who have problems with vertical video.
What am I talking about? Here’s a video shot the “right” way:
Apparently this is virtuous video. Video that won’t curl your hair, lead to halitosis or Make America Lose the War™. (I think I owe George Carlin’s estate royalties for that line.)
This is vertical video:
Even Dunkel is bored with your aversion to vertical video. And yes, I snuck in a cat video.
I first learned this was a thing when I saw this video:
I’ll be the first to say that this is hilarious. It’s also about as intellectually rigorous as most of the arguments I’ve seen. I haven’t (and won’t) do an exhaustive analysis of those arguments, but there seem to be four of them:
- History: Video has always had a horizontal orientation.
- Physiology: Our eyes are side-by-side and our perceptual range is roughly horizontally-oriented.
- Wasted space: A vertically-oriented video is often presented with black bars on the left and right when presented on a horizontally-oriented
- It looks funny: I think this is really just some fuzzy combination of the first three, but maybe not.
I’ll say right up front that the first three sound perfectly reasonable on their face. Each statement is actually true. Irrelevant, but true. Here’s why:
The ratio of a video’s width to height is referred to as its aspect ratio. Most of the time it’s expressed as a proportion:
Number Units Width : Number of Units Height
So a 4:3 aspect ratio would equally describe a screen 4-inches wide and 3-inches tall as well as one 40-inches wide and 30-inches tall. Don’t misunderstand: the units can be anything: feet, millimeters, squares of chocolate, or the mark my forehead makes on the desk as I collapse from tedium. You’ll also see aspect ratios expressed as the quotient of width divided by height. Our screen with a 40-inch width and 30-inch height can also be said to have a 1.3333 aspect ratio.
I didn’t just pick that size out of the air as an example. You’ll learn, if you go to the Wikipedia article I just linked to, that this was film’s original aspect ratio. For reasons lost to the mists of time, Dickson and Edison (and likely more Dickson than Edison) decided the height of a frame would be four sprocket-holes and the width was based on what was left over on 35-mm film after you accounted for the space the sprockets took up. So the Ür moving-image aspect ratio wasn’t sent down by the Almighty on stone tablets, it was tied to the physical characteristics of the first standardized film system.
So it’s true that video images have historically been horizontally-oriented. First it was a little wider than tall, now it can be a lot wider than tall. The thing is, it’s pretty tough to flip a movie projector or TV on its side. Still images never had that limitation. You’d never hear anyone being taken seriously if they tried to argue that landscape orientation is the only true photo orientation and portrait is the spawn of the devil. Digital video images are closer to still images than traditional analog moving images in that the display devices can be made to arbitrarily rotate the image so that up is always up and and down is always down.
So sure, we’ve always had horizontal video. We had to. Now we don’t.
Everyone’s a little different, but we have a little bit more range of vision side-to-side than up and down vision. It isn’t in focus all the time and we actually pay attention to very little of what’s in front of us, but our visual fields of view tend to be horizontally-oriented. Not as horizontal as even old-school 4:3 video, but horizontal nonetheless. The argument against vertical video seems to be that moving images are somehow “wrong” if they aren’t mimicking the physiological characteristics of our eyes. That seems like a safe assumption on its face, but it falls apart pretty quickly. Here’s a non-exhaustive list of things people accept in film and video all the time that the human eye isn’t capable of:
- Pans and tilts
- Fast-forward / Slow-motion
- Dissolves. Heck, pretty much any transition except for (possibly) the cut.
Don’t start on me about pans and tilts. “What do you mean?” you say “I can certainly turn my head from side to side! I can look up and down!” Yes you can. But what you don’t notice is that your eyes don’t stay fixed forward as your head moves. What basically happens is your eye tracks very quickly to where you’re looking and your neck catches up. You change your “shot” as fast as you possibly can and “edit out” the motion of your eye so you aren’t disoriented. Google “fixation” and “saccades” if you want to know more.
That’s why I’m willing to say the eye can sort of mimic a cut, but unless your name is Steve Austin and you’re the Six-Million-Dollar Man, your eye isn’t doing a zoom. So it’s kind of silly to insist on a horizontal orientation for video when we accept all kinds of things the eye can’t do.
At a deeper level, the whole language of the moving image is predicated on two things: The interplay of light and shadow and the notion of directed attention. The camera’s gaze isn’t supposed to fall equally on all objects in the field of view. One of the hardest things to do is watch video shot by an unmoving camera. It’s like talking to someone who doesn’t blink. It takes a while, but after a couple of minutes your skin is crawling.
Is vertical video always the best choice to direct attention? Of course not. Lawrence of Arabia would have been a silly movie shot vertically. What I find hilarious, though, is that the effectiveness of the Vertical Video Syndrome PSA up there really relies on the vertical video to create the negative space necessary for the joke to work. And speaking of negative space …
This is the one I find the funniest: that somehow you’re not getting your money’s worth if every pixel of your display device isn’t taken up with video. It’s kind of like back in the days when TVs had a 4:3 aspect ratio and you’d hear screaming from people when they saw a letterboxed video. Or now when people are perfectly comfortable distorting the aspect ratio of a 4:3 source video to fill a 16:9 screen. Somehow people looking shorter and fatter (and circles appearing to be squashed ovals) is preferable to there being pixels on the screen that aren’t earning their keep by just showing black. To each their own, I guess. For the record, videos with distorted aspect ratios drive me nuts, but Carla can watch them without noticing. And I love her very much. I can accept mystery in my life.
For reasons no one will every really understand, YouTube doesn’t accommodate vertical video and to people who leave comments on YouTube (a scary, depressing group of people), that makes vertical video A Bad Thing.™ Here’s my video from above as it appears on YouTube.
Note how they blow up the still frame and then BAM! Black bars left and right. Other services allow vertical video. The fact that YouTube doesn’t isn’t a valid indictment. Sounds more like a lack of imagination on their part to me.
I really don’t know what to do with the wasted space argument. It’s a taste thing, I guess. But just because it bothers you doesn’t mean it bothers everyone.
It Looks Funny
When I’m being charitable I say that this is probably a way for people to express their discomfort over some combination of the other objections. When I’m not being charitable I ask when in the course of human events we’ve ever seen things go wrong when humans immediately dislike something because it’s strange and unfamiliar. It usually works out pretty well, right?
This has been a long post. I have a simple point. You may not like vertical video. That’s fine. You don’t have to. No one’s making you. Just understand that it’s not the video that’s having the problem.
Don’t mistake the two.
Welcome to the ranks of vertical lovers Tom! Check out Alicewinks (alicewinks.com or google it for more) for 164 min of vertical meant to be watched up close and personal, on a tablet (iPad or Android) it is 9×16 so Androids with HD screens will “waste” (ha, love that!) fewer pixels than an iPad. “Vertical Media” is a little ebook (epub3) by myself and Miriam Ross coming soon. If you would like an early copy email me at walrus at alicewinks. We pretty much say what you are saying about VVS. We had a workshop film and edit with vertical frames in December. We include their films as well. Best of luck!
Ha! I watch your two examples at the beginning numerous times (and I mean NUMEROUS TIMES) and could even see the difference. Well other than Dunkel being bored. I studied the camera angle and even details of the image. Still didn’t get it until you discussed it. If it is so aweful, shouldn’t novice at least notice it? Just sayin.